According to official data, over the past 25 years, the humus content in the soil has decreased by an average of 20%, with the loss of 620 kg/ha/year of humus on arable lands in all regions of Russia, but especially in the fertile regions of the Black Lands, where the use of very aggressive chemical fertilizers for these ecosystems has also increased, mainly betting on monocultures and moving away from the practice of crop rotation.
Agricultural land areas are being reduced, the negative humus balance on arable land is growing, soil contamination with heavy metals is becoming more significant, and the quality of arable land is constantly decreasing.High doses of chemical fertilizers, applied to the soil for high yields, cause huge environmental damage to fertile land.
Questions about the effectiveness of using natural materials, such as zeolite, with a high content of amorphous silicon, high ion exchange capacity, unique adsorption and structural characteristics as fertilizers, ameliorants and soil conditioners, are considered for a long time. Zeolites can have a positive effect on the physico-chemical and agrochemical properties of the soil, optimizing their structural state and acid-base regime, as well as phosphorus and silicon nutrition of cultivated plants, which ultimately productively affects their yield and the quality of the output. In addition, zeolite is able to exert its sorption properties against many toxicants (heavy metals, residual amounts of pesticides, etc.), thereby contributing to the production of eco-friendly crop products. Moreover, the problem of using zeolite-containing mineral raw materials is of global importance, since they belong to one of the groups of biologically active and eco-friendly raw materials that are widely distributed in nature.
Currently, the company "The union of manufactures of organic fertilizers ZEO BIO" LLC, together with Organiczeo-bio S. L./ Spain and scientists from other countries, have developed and implemented organic fertilizers "ZEO-BIO"into production.
This fertilizer cannot be compared with known mineral fertilizers. This organic mineral fertilizer is made on the basis of the modified zeolite, enriched with low molecular weight amino acids and plant extracts. The principle of its action significantly differs from the general understanding of N, P, K's action. Based on the results of microfield experiments, scientists from Oryol State Agrarian University and Ulyanovsk State Agrarian University revealed prolonged activation of the phosphate-reducing microbial function of sod-podzolic soil under the action of zeolite, as a result of which the content of mobile (available) phosphorus compounds increased by 19-37 mg/kg of soil, or by 22-43%.
The introduction of zeolite into the soil drastically improved the physical condition of the arable layer, while, first of all, the number of agronomically valuable aggregates with dimensions of 0.25-10 mm during dry sieving increased (by 18.5%, absolute value) and the structural coefficient increased by 2 times. The soil became optimally dense (1.12 g /cm3). Decompaction of the arable layer occurred under the influence of the structuring effect of zeolite on the aggregate composition of the soil: polysilicon acids are able to bind soil particles into aggregates and the structure is improved by the formation of silicon bridges between them. Humic substances also contribute to the bonding effect of silicic acids.
Zeolites have an extremely large inner surface relative to their outer surface.
The porous microstructure of zeolites determines the possibility of introducing various useful components into them and creating high-performance, eco-friendly and cost-effective fertilizersZEO-BIO of a new generation on their basis.
L-Amino acids are a new type of biological organic biostimulants. They do not have a negative impact on the environment, increase soil fertility, are highly efficient and highly profitable. Amino acids quickly and easily penetrate cell membranes to the cell nucleus, providing access to essential nutrients naturally and more efficiently than chemical fertilizers. To obtain L-amino acids, no microorganisms are used, and the input materials are chemical elements that are part of the amino acid formulas, such as C, N, O, H, S..., obtained by extraction from purified organic compounds, the same ones that are used by cells in the process of biosynthesis. The mechanism of the action of amino acids (AA), obtained in the process of cellular biosynthesis, is experimentally investigated and the practical results of their applications are confirmed by 30 years of their use in agriculture and cattle breeding.
On the other hand, based on the extensive knowledge of the chemical and physical properties of zeolites, obtained as a result of research conducted in the last 20 years by research groups around the world, they provide us with a reliable basis for understanding their interaction when active amino acids are adsorbed by zeolites and the results of using this new bio-fertilizer ZEO-BIO: Zeolites + AA especially as ecological nutrients for agricultural crops.
It is important that the remaining amino acids available on the market, obtained by any of the following processes: chemical synthesis, acidic or enzymatic hydrolysis, or by fermentation using natural or GMOs (genetically modified microorganisms), do not interact with zeolites, since their molecule size is larger than the pore size of the crystal structure zeolites, and they do not penetrate into these pores. Amino acids have a molecular size of less than 10 angstroms, as well as a low molecular weight and intense biological activity (COO; NH3 +), they easily penetrate the microscopic pores of modified zeolite and actively participate in electron-ion processes inside zeolites.